SSH is a protocol used to manage a distant pc from the command line. It’s extensively used to remotely handle Linux desktops and servers.

This text serves as a information on learn how to set up the OpenSSH SSH server on Debian 11 and learn how to configure it. Let’s get began.

Matter Contents

  1. Installing OpenSSH SSH Server
  2. Checking the SSH Server Status
  3. Starting and Stopping the SSH Server
  4. Adding and Removing the SSH Service from the System Startup
  5. Accessing the SSH Server
  6. Configuring the SSH Server
  7. Enabling Root Access for the SSH Server
  8. Changing the Port of the SSH Server
  9. Conclusion

Putting in OpenSSH SSH Server

The OpenSSH SSH server bundle is offered within the official bundle repository of Debian 11, so it is extremely simple to put in.

First, replace the APT bundle repository cache of your Debian 11 desktop/server with the next command:

To put in the OpenSSH SSH server on Debian 11, run the next command:

$ sudo apt set up openssh-server

To substantiate the set up, press Y after which press <Enter>.

After confirming, the OpenSSH SSH server and all of the required dependency packages will then be put in. It takes a number of seconds to finish the set up course of.

At this level, the OpenSSH SSH server needs to be efficiently put in within the system.

Checking the SSH Server Standing

You may examine if the SSH server is working and whether it is added to the system startup (in order that it routinely begins on boot) with the next command:

$ sudo systemctl standing ssh

As you may see, the SSH server is enabled1. It implies that it’s added to the system startup and it’ll routinely begin on boot.

If the SSH server is inactive (useless)2, it implies that it’s not working for the time being. For those who see an lively (working) standing, it implies that the SSH server is working.

Beginning and Stopping the SSH Server

You can begin the OpenSSH SSH server utilizing the next command:

$ sudo systemctl begin ssh

Right here, you may see that the SSH server is lively/working1. It’s listening on port 22 for SSH connections2.

If you wish to cease the OpenSSH SSH server, run the next command:

$ sudo systemctl cease ssh

Including and Eradicating the SSH Service from the System Startup

You may add the SSH service to the system startup of Debian 11 utilizing the command supplied beneath to start out the OpenSSH SSH server routinely on system boot.

$ sudo systemctl allow ssh

For those who don’t need to begin the OpenSSH SSH server routinely on system boot, you may take away the SSH service from the system startup of Debian 11.

$ sudo systemctl disable ssh

Accessing the SSH Server

To entry the OpenSSH SSH server, you will want to know the IP deal with of your Debian 11 desktop/server.

You may run the next command in your Debian 11 desktop/server to search out its IP deal with.

The IP deal with of my Debian 11 desktop is 192.168.0.115 as you may see within the screenshot beneath. It’s completely different from yours, so be sure that to enter your desktop/server IP deal with.

Additionally, you will must know the login username of your Debian 11 desktop/server. You’ll find it utilizing the next command:

The login username of my Debian 11 desktop is shovon as you may see within the screenshot beneath. Yours is completely different, so be sure that to enter your personal login username.

As soon as you already know the login username and IP deal with of your Debian 11 desktop/server, you may connect with your Debian 11 desktop/server remotely through SSH as follows:

$ ssh <username>@<ip-addr>

NOTE: Ensure that to interchange <username> and <ip-addr> with the login username and IP deal with of your Debian 11 desktop/server respectively.

In my case, the command is:

$ ssh shovon@192.168.0.115

Kind in Sure and press <Enter> to substantiate the fingerprint.

Kind within the password of your login person and press <Enter>.

Try to be logged in to your Debian 11 desktop/server remotely through SSH.

You may run any instructions right here for managing and monitoring your Debian 11 desktop/server remotely.

When you’re completed, you may shut the SSH session with the next command:

Configuring the SSH Server

The configuration recordsdata of the OpenSSH SSH server are within the /and many others/ssh listing. The principle OpenSSH SSH server configuration file is sshd_config as you may see within the screenshot beneath.

To configure the SSH server, you may open the sshd_config file with the nano textual content editor as follows:

$ sudo nano /and many others/ssh/sshd_config

The OpenSSH SSH server configuration file sshd_config needs to be opened with the nano textual content editor.

Make the required modifications right here. When you’re completed, press <Ctrl> + X adopted by Y and <Enter> to save lots of the configuration file.

Each time you make any modifications to the sshd_config file, you’ll have to restart the OpenSSH SSH server with the next command:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

To find out about all of the out there choices and what they’re used for, you may learn the manpage of the sshd_config configuration file.

To open the manpage of the sshd_config configuration file, run the next command:

The manpage of the sshd_config configuration file needs to be opened. Scroll up and down the manpage to search out the data you should configure the OpenSSH SSH server.

Enabling Root Entry for the SSH Server

By default, you gained’t have the ability to entry the OpenSSH SSH server as root. If you should log in to the SSH server as the foundation person, you’ll have to allow it from the sshd_config file.

Open the sshd_config file with the nano textual content editor as follows:

$ sudo nano /and many others/ssh/sshd_config

Discover the PermitRootLogin possibility as marked within the screenshot beneath. It’s commented out by default.

Uncomment the PermitRootLogin possibility and set it to sure as marked within the screenshot beneath.

When you’re completed, press <Ctrl> + X adopted by Y and <Enter> to save lots of the sshd_config file.

For the modifications to take impact, restart the OpenSSH SSH server with the next command:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

Now, it’s important to set a root password to allow the foundation person account in your Debian 11 desktop/server.

To set a root password and allow the foundation person account, run the next command:

Kind in your required root password and press <Enter>.

Retype your root password and press <Enter>.

A root password needs to be set and the foundation account needs to be enabled.

You may log in to your Debian 11 desktop/server remotely through SSH as the foundation person as follows:

NOTE: Ensure that to interchange <ip-addr> with the IP deal with of your Debian 11 desktop/server.

In my case, the command is:

Kind within the login password of the foundation person and press <Enter>.

Try to be logged in to the Debian 11 desktop/server as the foundation person.

You may run any command you need in your Debian 11 desktop/server from right here.

When you’re completed, you may shut the SSH session as follows:

Altering the Port of the SSH Server

At occasions, for safety causes, it would be best to change the default SSH server port 22 to one thing like 2222.

To do this, open the sshd_config file with the nano textual content editor as follows:

$ sudo nano /and many others/ssh/sshd_config

You’ll discover the Port possibility on prime of the file as marked within the screenshot beneath.

Uncomment the Port possibility and set it to 2222 as marked within the screenshot beneath to configure the SSH server to hear on port 2222.

When you’re completed, press <Ctrl> + X adopted by Y and <Enter> to save lots of the sshd_config file.

For the modifications to take impact, restart the OpenSSH SSH server with the next command:

$ sudo systemctl restart ssh

When you’ve modified the SSH server port, you’ll have to use the -p possibility adopted by the port quantity whereas connecting to the SSH server remotely as follows:

$ ssh <username>@<ip-addr> -p <port-number>

NOTE: Change <port-number> with the port variety of the SSH server.

In my case, the command is:

$ ssh shovon@192.168.0.115 -p 2222

Kind in your login password and press <Enter>.

Try to be logged in to your Debian 11 desktop/server remotely through SSH.

Conclusion

This text guides you on learn how to set up the OpenSSH SSH server in your Debian 11 desktop/server, learn how to entry the SSH server to handle/monitor your Debian 11 desktop/server remotely through SSH, and learn how to configure the SSH server to allow root entry and alter the SSH port as nicely.

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